Autonomous Haulage System (AHS) for Trucks

iTruck is an Autonomous Haulage System (AHS) for mining trucks featuring true machine autonomy and robust radar perception. iTruck increases operator safety and Overall Equipment Efficiency while reducing Costs per ton.

Key Benefits


iTruck SafetySafety

● Elimination of exposure of machine operators to danger
● Elimination of possible collisions with personnel and objects
● Reduction of machine damage by precision control
● Reduction of machine damage by improved driving characteristics

Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE)

iTruck OEEAvailability

● Highest system availability in all weather conditions due to unique radar perception
● Reduction of machine damage (collisions, speeding, etc.)

iTruck OEEUtilization

● Increase efficient use of time per shift (quick shift change, short blasting delays)
● Not dependent on operator attendance
● Less downtime (breaks, etc.)

iTruck OEEPerformance

● Operates optimally within safety limits
● No time-losses (spotting, driving behaviors, real-time information)
● Optimal paths
● No idle time at dispatch
● Optimized ROM through fully integrated iCrusher solution

iTruck OEEQuality

● Consistent and plannable performance (time-independent)
● Increased MTBF by optimized machine operation

Cost Efficiency

iTruck Cost EfficiencyCost Efficiency

● Fuel: Optimized drive reduces fuel consumption
● Maintenance: Less damage and wear reduces maintenance costs
● Fast ramp-up due to straightforward implementation process and quick commissioning
● Simple site change / modification
● Quick and simple route modification by operator
● Online machine monitoring

Robust Radar Technology

The automation system’s perception is based on indurad’s unique 360° radar technology scanning with up to 50 revolutions per second. indurad’s radar technology is designed for the harsh mining environment and does not compromise on point cloud imaging unlike low-cost automotive radar sensors that rely on inaccurate digital beam forming, patch antennas, and integrated MMIC chipsets. The machine’s surroundings are scanned with high accuracy (sub-millimeter ranging accuracy) while being largely unaffected by environmental influences such as dust, rain, fog, or snow. Radar is the only technology that maintains its high OEE in even the harshest mining environments.

Key Features

The iTruck system offers true autonomy along optimal paths and is therefore capable of reacting dynamically to changing mine site environments. iTruck actively avoids collisions, even with smaller debris, through both its dynamically updated environmental map and its unique perception system. Safety and productivity are maximized through its robust multi-sensor positioning and sophisticated control of complex vehicle kinematics like those of articulated machines. The accuracy enables maneuverability into narrow crusher entries or roadway sections at high velocities.

The OEM-Agnostic iTruck solution features flexible design and open interfacing and enables simple integration into existing mine environments with mixed fleets.

Designed with smaller fleets in mind, the system operates by allowing the excavator or shovel operator to direct the fleet from a touch panel. Therefore, further supervision is not required and time losses are minimized.

indurad’s deep understanding of process bottlenecks has driven integration of shovels and crushers into the complete AHS solution. By integrating the haulage system with indurad’s iCrusher solution, the AHS can optimize ROM, increasing a mine’s throughput capacity and as a result its output.


The AHS may be configured and supervised through an intuitive user interface with advanced graphics for map and route design, machine monitoring, safety system status, and service features. The user interface displays a real-time 2D and 3D visualization of the entire loading, haulage, and crushing processes.


Besides open pit mines and quarries, iTruck enables robust automation in indoor and outdoor industrial applications, such as metallurgical plants and smelters.

  • Surface, GNSS-denied, and hybrid applications
  • Small and medium sized operations as well as large-scale operations
  • All trackless mobile machines (articulated and rigid dump trucks as well as other machine types)

Standards Compliance

The AHS encompasses a holistic safety concept and fully complies with ISO 17757:2017 for autonomous and semi-autonomous machine system safety. To fulfill its objective of simplicity and flexibility, it already meets the criteria of the upcoming standards for autonomous system and fleet management system interoperability. The system incorporates an extension of ISO 23725 as a Drive-By-Wire communication interface, developed in close cooperation with Bell.